Drew Nelson, President/CEO, IQE
Revolutionising Gallium Nitride RF chips
GaN-on-SiC RF: Poised for rapid adoption
John Palmour - Wolfspeed
It is well known that RF GaN-on-SiC transistors are capable of providing power, bandwidth, and efficiency performance capabilities in excess of what can be provided by traditional technologies, like silicon LDMOS and GaAs. It is less widely known that GaN-on-SiC has also been quietly, yet steadily, gaining power transistor market share not only in high performance, niche applications like Lockheed Martin’s Space Fence, but in high volume, cost sensitive markets such as cellular infrastructure as well. In fact, over the last three years, Wolfspeed has sold more than 15 million GaN-on-SiC transistors into the telecom market. This has established a firm track record of performance and reliability, and sets the stage for the next wave of GaN-on-SiC growth. This adoption is not only expected to accelerate in telecom infrastructure to satisfy 5G and IOT requirements, but also to become more visible as large military systems that have long been in development begin to transition to production. Beyond that, other segments such as microwave heating, plasma lighting, and TWT replacements are taking a hard look at GaN-on-SiC for its performance and reliability advantages over other traditional solutions.
GaN RF industry: landscape and future evolution
Zhen Zong - Yole Développement
Gallium Nitride(GaN) has been considered as a good candidate for the next generation RF applications. GaN based RF power amplifiers have superior performances and are gaining more and more importance in various markets. Both early GaN players and the newcomers are trying to make the change and to take more share in the market. We will present the landscape of the GaN RF industry, covering the applicative markets, different company strategies and the competition among existing technologies such as GaN on SiC, GaN on silicon, GaAs and LDMOS.
GaN Doherty amplifiers for backhaul radio links
Rocco Giofrè - University of Rome Tor Vergata
The increasing demand of higher data rates for mobile communications is pushing towards advanced solutions for the so called backhaul, i.e. the link between base-stations and mobile switching nodes. Indeed, due to the limited spectrum resources, high data rates are usually achieved by using signals characterized by a high peak-to-average power ratio. This choice poses a big challenge in the optimization of the efficiency vs. linearity trade-off of the adopted transmitter. To maximize such trade-off, high average efficiency and low distortion power amplifiers are essential. In this context, the Doherty Power Amplifier (DPA) is an attractive and effective solution. On these bases, this contribution presents the designs and tests of advanced DPA architecture, based on GaN technology.
The virtues of GaN-on-silicon
Michael Ziehl - MACOM
With the technology advantages of GaN-on-silicon now becoming available at a competitive price level, it is undoubtedly a disruptive technology for RF power applications, particularly in communication and industrial applications where higher reliability and performance justifies a greater initial investment. GaN-on-silicon performance is ideally suited for challenging environments with unpredictable load impedances, exhibiting no performance degradation over time. Furthermore, the GaN-on-silicon process is also scalable, due to its silicon-based cost structure, and provides the capacity and reliability needed to trigger the explosive growth that is anticipated in these burgeoning markets.
Perfecting power electronics
Unleashing the potential of gallium oxide
Toshimi Hitora - FLOSFIA
Ga2O3 is an ultra-wide-bandgap semiconductor that is very promising for the future of power electronics. Although this class of device is still in its infancy, some remarkable results have been realised in the last two-to-three years, includes those by our team at Flosfia. We have produced of a Schottky barrier diode with a world-record-breaking specific on-resistance for any device of just 0.1 mΩ cm-2. We are targeting its mass production in 2018.
Driving the GaN Power Device roadmap for large scale adoption
Frédéric Dupont - Exagan
GaN-on-silicon power devices are recognized as a key technology to sustain future power converter systems roadmaps in the field of IT electronics, renewable solar and emission-free automotive applications. Exagan is implementing proprietary G-Stack 200-mm’s GaN-on-silicon and G-FET technologies into high volume production to enable higher integration and improved efficiency. The advantage of its unique expertise in GaN-on-silicon material fabrication while leveraging on its attractive fab-lite business model, allows Exagan to provide GaN-on-silicon power switches solutions to meet future market performance, reliability and cost targets.
From Hype to Reality: GaN/Si - where are we today?
Markus Behet - EpiGaN
GaN value chain players are gearing up for prime time. In particular, GaN-on-silicon technology is becoming the focal point for innovations in power switching, RF power for 5G and sensor applications. As high-volume, large-diameter and low-cost manufacturing solutions for GaN-on-silicon are becoming available today, EpiGaN is ready to provide optimized GaN-on-silicon epiwafer solutions up to 200 mm for multiple target applications. Learn about the latest developments for GaN-on-silicon epiwafer products for 600 V power switching and RF power with lowest losses and dispersion effects and AlN/GaN HEMTs with in-situ SiN passivation on large diameter epiwafers that enable best-in class device performance.
Current topics in electronic devices based on wide band-gap semiconductors for power applications and energy efficiency
Isik Kizilyalli - ARPA-E
Wide-bandgap power semiconductor devices offer enormous energy efficiency gains in a wide range of potential applications. As silicon-based semiconductors are fast approaching their performance limits for high power requirements, GaN, SiC, and diamond, with their superior electrical properties are likely candidates to replace silicon in the near future. Along with higher blocking voltages, wide-bandgap semiconductors offer breakthrough relative circuit performance, enabling low losses, high switching frequencies, and high-temperature operation. The progress of the development of high-voltage, high-current wide-bandgap power switching devices in the APRA-E SWITCHES program is reviewed. The performance of various rectifiers and transistors, which have been demonstrated, is discussed. Material and processing challenges and reliability concerns for wide-bandgap power devices are also described. A glimpse into the future trends in device development and commercialization is offered.
Slashing chip costs with SiC-on-silicon
Sujit Banerjee - Monolith Semiconductor
SiC power devices will revolutionize power electronics if they can be manufactured in a cost effective way. Monolith Semiconductor has adopted the strategy of utilizing high-volume, 150 mm silicon CMOS fabs to manufacture SiC power devices. Using an automotive qualified fab, 1.2 kV SiC diodes and MOSFETs have been developed with state-of-the-art performance and superior reliability that can be manufactured at fraction of the cost. Monolith has pioneered a fabless manufacturing model for SiC power semiconductors that is expected to slash SiC chip costs and drive wide spread adoption.
Wide bandgap devices: the key to the world's smallest laptop charger
Bulk GaN substrate grown by HVPE
Ke Xu - Nanowin
We report our recent progress in 2~4-inch bulk GaN growth by Hydride Vapour Phase Epitaxy (HVPE). Our GaN has dislocation density of the order of 104 cm-2, and background electron concentration of the order of 1016 cm-3, and electron mobility of around 1400V·s/cm2. In our presentation, we will also review the progress of other methods for bulk GaN growth, such as the sodium-flux method and the ammonothermal method. In addition, we will review the challenges associated with GaN-on-GaN devices.
Enabling 5G RF-GaN Electronics through Innovative MOCVD Technology
Sudhakar Raman - Veeco
Emerging mid and high voltage applications in consumer devices and data centers are requiring improved power efficiencies, higher operating frequencies and smaller form factor. GaN is ideally suited for low voltage RF applications (e.g. 5G) due to its higher power capability relative to GaAs. GaN-Si RF devices can provide a path to desired cost targets for 5G mobile handsets. However producing these devices in volume with the best performance and cost targets requires new innovations in MOCVD technology. The MOCVD process has to deliver superior film quality with high yield, low defectivity and high uptime. In this talk, we will discuss the innovative next generation MOCVD system and how it enables 5G GaN based RF devices as well as GaN HEMT with superior cost of ownership in high volume production.
SiC and GaN Defect Inspection for Power Device Market
Edwin Chew - KLA-Tencor
With expanding applications (hybrid/electric vehicles, inverters, wind power, high-speed trains, etc.), SiC and GaN wide bandgap power device manufacturers require advanced inspection technologies that help cost-effectively ramp production. SiC epi wafer defectivity and cost are improving, and advantages over traditional silicon-based power devices for high-voltage applications are becoming the driving growth material in the power device segment. A key inspection challenge in the inspection of SiC substrates and SiC epilayers is that they are typically transparent to visible light. Novel inspection designs solve this key challenge by leveraging SiC absorption in the ultra-violet regime. The architecture design allows excellent sensitivity to micro-scratches/micro-pits, and enables photoluminescence contrast on otherwise invisible epi-layer defects.
Establishing the tool-of-record for wide bandgap device manufacturing
Jens Voigt - AIXTRON
Wide bandgap devices are undergoing increasing adoption in applications for power supplies, automotive charging, power management in consumer electronics and telecommunication. Volume manufacturing environments impose high standards on process stability and control, manufacturing yield, device performance and overall manufacturing costs. AIXTRON's Planetary Reactor MOCVD Technology offers batch reactor productivity combined with highest process performance. Significant Tool-of-Record positions among the world's largest semiconductor manufacturers have been established. Key requirements and achievements, which are instrumental for high-volume manufacturing of power devices, will be discussed in this contribution.
Bigger wafers for heterogenous devices?
John Voltz - Ferrotec
Massive increase in the interconnectedness of our world has propelled the expansion of semiconductor industry from silicon to Compound Semiconductor Heterogeneous devices after 50 years of Moore’s Law. Manufacturers of CS Heterogeneous devices (GaN/ silicon power, RF & LED ICs; BAW/FBAR on silicon; thin film inductors with cobalt-based magnetic core on silicon…) readily recognize the process divergences between the silicon and CS industry. What are the driving forces for the success of current & emerging heterogeneous devices? What are the market dynamics? What are the criteria for ideal processes and systems?
This presentation examines these questions and proposes answers by taking a case study on the ideal metal deposition technology for GaN/silicon, BAW/FBAR, MEMS, and thin film inductor. Detailed evaluation on the progress made so far from a historical perspective is presented. Proposed specifications for an ideal deposition system are offered for the review by our industry.
8-inch Diameter High voltage GaN power device wafers enabling unmatched cost, performance and application scale
Cem Basceri - Quora Technology
Quora Technology, Inc., located in Silicon Valley, California, is poised to become one of the premier players in rapidly growing wide bandgap semiconductor industry. The company is delivering revolutionary and validated: (1) CMOS fab-friendly 8-inch diameter QST (Quora Substrate Technology) substrates, which are scalable to 12-inch, for GaN epitaxial growth; (2) 8-inch GaN-on-QSTTM wafers with epilayer thicknesses ranging from a few um to >10 um for 100V to 1,200V and beyond power devices, and (3) high performance device reference designs enabling an unmatched cost, performance, and application scale for its customers and partners. In this talk, the status on 8-inch QSTTM substrate and GaN-on-QSTTM epi wafer volume production, along with the detailed results on ≥10 um thick, crack-free GaN epilayers on 8-inch QSTTM with <2 mm edge exclusion, <15 um bow, 200 arcsec (002) / 350 arcsec (102) FWHM, and high voltage HEMT and Schottky rectifier results will be presented.
Creating the biggest and best LED chipmaker in China
Hsu Chen Ke - Sanan Optoelectronics
Founded in 2000, Sanan Optoelectronics, the biggest and best LED chipmaker in China, is expanding its portfolio beyond visible range LEDs, thanks to its core technology in GaN and GaAs epitaxy. This presentation will detail the initial success in the visible LED market, before outlining the launch of infrared and UV chips in 2013 and 2014, and the development of other classes of device. They include Concentrator Photovoltaic(CPV) and GaAs for wireless communication and GaN power devices, which can be manufactured on the 6-inch line at Xiamen Sanan Integrated Circuit Co., Ltd.
Lighting-up India with LEDs
Indian households are rapidly adopting LED bulbs in a bid to make their homes energy efficient. Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL) has distributed over 140 million LED bulbs till now across 125 cities in the country under the Government of India’s UJALA (Unnat Jyoti by Affordable LEDs for all) scheme.
Efficient domestic lighting is one of the largest contributors to energy savings globally. The lighting sector accounts for about 20 per cent of the total consumption in India. Currently, most of the lighting need in domestic and public lighting sector is met by inefficient, conventional, incandescent bulbs.
The Government of India is committed to achieving its target of replacing all the 770 million inefficient bulbs in India with LEDs by 2018. This will result in reduction of 20,000 MW load, energy savings of 105 billion kWh and a Green House Gas reduction of 80 million tonnes every year. The country also stands to save close to $6 billion in the electricity bills of consumers.
Non-linear processes in LEDs and engineering for efficiency at high power densities
Oleg Shchekin - Lumileds
Emerging solid-state lighting applications emphasize emitter optical source size, packing density and brightness at levels that are challenging conventional LED technology. Beyond the familiar 'droop' of InGaN internal quantum efficiency, non-linear behaviour in current spreading of the die and photo-thermal quenching of phosphors emerge as additional processes suppressing LED efficiency and limiting lumen output. Alleviation of these parasitic effects requires basic materials research and design as well as device engineering.
LED - more than just a light emitting cube
Martin Behringer - OSRAM Opto Semiconductors
LEDs were invented quite some time ago. For a long time, brightness level and efficiency improvement were the main focuses of research.
Material properties required design and process improvements to overcome limitations. Recently, people have realized that the LED offers many more opportunities. Many applications could only be addressed by the unique characteristics of semiconductor LED lightsources.
This talk will first compare the architecture alternatives of the current LED and address present limitations and challenges. In the second part, new concepts of light sources will be presented that make use of the efficiency and compactness of light generation in semiconductors.
Fulfilling the promise of the GaN VCSEL
Tatsushi Hamaguchi - Sony Corporation
GaN-based VCSELs are destined to replace conventional LEDs and lasers as light sources in many applications, like laser printers, projectors, displays, solid-state lighting, optical communications and biosensors. And if green and blue forms of this device are united with red-emitting GaAs VCSELs, this could spawn incredibly small, wearable projectors and high-power light sources for full-colour displays. However, making a GaN-based VCSEL has been far harder than producing a GaAs-based cousin because of the characteristics of Gallium Nitride. This talk shows the latest breakthroughs made by Sony Corporation to enable the fabrication of GaN-VCSELs.
Overcoming the green gap using semi-polar GaN
Bedwyr Humphreys - Seren Photonics
The inability to create efficient green emitting LEDs, "the green gap" has long plagued LED manufacturers looking to provide a complete suite of devices covering red, blue and green in applications such as displays, signage, general lighting and solid state projection. Recent research indicates that the dominant cause of the green gap is excessive droop, a well-known phenomenon in the blue LED industry. Semi-polar GaN has already been demonstrated to reduce droop in blue LEDs and the additional benefits of faster recombination rates, reduced polarisation and reduced strain in green quantum wells all combine to provide the route to once and for all eliminate the green gap.
Study of Deep Ultra Violet Optical Property of AlGaN/GaN 2DEG Heterostructures
Torsten Stoll - Nanometrics
AlGaN/GaN material system has attracted tremendous interest from high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) to deep ultra violet (UV) light emitting diode (LED).
It is critical to determine the aluminum (Al) composition in material as that will heavily decide the device performance. Photoluminescence (PL) technique and PhotoReflectance (PR) technique have demonstrated the powerful capability for practical application to composition monitoring, and wafer quality/uniformity inspections. A commercially available PL and PR full wafer mapping metrology tool is developed for the first time for deep UV application. An alternate high speed mapping metrology is being developed with the potential to replace XRD.
Refining communication technologies
InP HBTs for high-power 70 to 500 GHz amplification: Its status today and where it is going
Zach Griffith - Teledyne Technologies
This talk will review the development of high-power, solid-state power amplifiers operating between 70-500 GHz using InP HBT. The high fmax of the technology at the 250-nm (700 GHz) and 125-nm (1.1 THz) nodes, combined with breakdown voltages of 3.5-4.5 V, permit high-gain, world-class mm-wave and THz PA’s to be realized. After review of the underlying InP HBT technology, the key design trade-offs for power amplifiers in the technology will be discussed and results presented. A review of state-of-the-art PA results from InP, silicon, and GaN technologies between 70-500 GHz will be shown. In closing, examples will be presented to show the opportunities these InP HBT PA’s have in next-generation communication, radar, and instrumentation systems.
The foundry of the 2020's
Asif Anwar - Strategy Analytics
As we approach the start of the next decade, the compound semiconductor industry is eagerly watching 5G developments and standards mature and come into better focus. The mobile industry has driven substantial growth and advancement in the compound semiconductor industry to date, but this growth engine is slowing down. However, 5G has the potential to transform society, while also serving as the next driver for compound semiconductors. The implementation of 5G will incorporate new frequency bands, some in the millimeter wave range, Massive MIMO antennas, beam steering, base station densification and significant emphasis on energy consumption. This presentation will offer some thoughts on how 5G evolution will influence the mix and requirements of semiconductor foundry technologies in the 2020’s.
The All-Silicon Handset—Transforming the Vision into a Reality
Dylan Kelly - Murata
From conference stages to whitepapers, there’s been no shortage of debate around an all-silicon cellular handset. From bulk CMOS to SOI to SiGe, silicon leads the way in integration, cost and power consumption. Time and time again, silicon has wiped out the competition, especially in high-volume markets.
But this all-silicon handset vision is bigger than just a battle over semiconductor technology; it’s about enabling new capabilities previously considered too difficult or expensive to implement. This silicon dream is really about programmability and system-level optimisation.
But where are we, the semiconductor industry, in this process of transforming this all-silicon vision into a reality? Is an all-silicon handset even a possibility considering the incumbency of gallium arsenide (GaAs) power amplifiers and 5G on the horizon? This session will dive into the latest RF front-end advancements and make a case that this all-silicon vision is indeed on the horizon, soon to enable new capabilities in handsets.
Al(1-x)ScxN films for use in RF devices
Bernd Heinz - Evatec
The design and performance of RF devices are tightly connected to the material properties of piezoelectric thin films. The replacement of AlN by Al(1-x)ScxN with its strongly enhanced piezoelectric response is a very promising path to increase the efficiency and sensitivity of next generation RF filters, sensors, actuators and energy harvesting devices, and today's existing sputter technology for AlN can be adopted for Al(1-x)ScxN film deposition with moderate Sc concentration (Sc < 10at%). However, the situation is much more challenging for films with high Sc content. Both high quality sputter targets and reliable deposition processes have to be developed jointly by target manufacturers and equipment suppliers. The latest results will be reported. The piezoelectric response of Al(1-x)ScxN films grown on 200mm substrates will be discussed and correlated with deposition parameters and film structural properties for films with Sc concentrations up to 39%. The steps required to deliver a high volume production solution for a maximum Sc concentration will be described.
Advancing GaAs Integration
David Danzilio - WIN Semiconductors
Compound semiconductor technology, and specifically GaAs, has captured a large and growing market share in wireless and optical systems by providing the optimum combination of RF performance and value. To remain the solution of choice in next generation systems and applications, GaAs technology has to complement its inherent performance advantage with increased integration and functionality. Historically, GaAs has lagged silicon technology in offering multiple device types on the same wafer (e,g, power, low noise, E/D logic, Schottky diode, PIN diode, etc) to enable highly integrated multifunctional MMICs. This gap is rapidly closing and this presentation will describe several advanced GaAs platforms that incorporate new levels of functionality within high performance GaAs HBT and pHEMT technologies. These platforms provide users with a new set of tools to address the ever evolving and complex performance requirements of present and future systems.
Exploiting heterogeneous integration
Advancing technology with heterogeneous integration
Daniel Green - DARPA
Heterogeneous integration of III-V devices on Silicon with ultra-thin buffer utilising interfacial misfit dislocations
Soon-Fatt Yoon - Nanyang Technological University
III-V semiconductors, such as GaSb, InAs and InSb, have attracted considerable interest due to their small bandgaps and high carrier mobilities. We utilized interfacial misfit dislocations to accommodate large lattice mismatch between these semiconductors and silicon, minimizing threading dislocations. InAs-based photodetector on GaAs substrate exhibited cut-off wavelength of 3.6μm with responsivity of 0.35A/W. Monolithic integration of Ge P-FETs and InAs N-FETs on silicon substrate has been demonstrated and showed record ON-current for both FETs amongst co-integrated (Si)Ge P-FETs and InGaAs N-FETs on silicon substrate. Furthermore, vertically stacked III-V nanowire CMOS on silicon has also been demonstrated for the first time.
Refining the III-V finFET
Jesus A Del Alamo - Microsystems Technology Laboratories
The interest on InGaAs as an n-type channel material for a future nanometer-scale logic CMOS technology continues to grow around the world. Major efforts are taking place in industrial and academic laboratories to develop InGaAs FinFETs capable of insertion at the 7 or 5 nm CMOS nodes, the point at which silicon FinFETs or nanowire FETs are believed to offer diminishing returns. InGaAs could offer a path forward. This talk gives an update on recent progress on InGaAs FinFETs made at MIT.
Looking for the ultimate low-power switch: the promise of tunnel FETs
Nadine Collaert - imec
Hope or hype? In search of the ultimate low power switch, many reports over the last decade have looked into tunnel FETs. These devices have the potential to reduce the subthreshold swing below 60mV/dec and as such reduce the operating voltage significantly.
While much progress has been made in the fundamental understanding of the limitations and advantages of these devices, still many challenges lie ahead. This presentation will address the opportunities and challenges of tunnel FETs, focusing not only on the material and integration aspects but also reviewing their impact at the circuit level.
Advancing CMOS and going beyond, with III-V channels
Veeresh Deshpande - IBM
Smart mobile systems are now the major driving force behind scaling of CMOS technology. Therefore, scaled CMOS technologies in the sub-10 nm node target lower power consumption while maintaining high performance. One of the key requirements of next generation CMOS technologies will be to achieve high performance at lower supply voltages. High-mobility materials such as such as Ge, SiGe and III-V compound semiconductors are being considered as potential channel material options to meet these requirements and continue scaling with the needed power-performance balance. Besides this, introduction of high-mobility III-V materials in CMOS technology provides the opportunity for integrating multiple functionalities on chip to enable system-on-chip (SoC) solutions for next generation mobile systems.
This presentation will detail some of the novel integration options towards a scalable hybrid CMOS technology both in 2D and 3D monolithic configuration. Recent achievements of hybrid III-V/SiGe CMOS circuits through these integration schemes will be highlighted.
III-Vs and germanium for future logic
Shengkai Wang - Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences
III-Vs and germanium are promising candidates to replace the silicon channel for future high-performance VLSI applications because of their high electron and hole mobility. In order to put III-Vs and germanium channels on a silicon platform into a sub-10 nm technology node, systematical solutions are needed to deal with the problems in materials integration on silicon, gate stack engineering, and devices reliability.
This presentation will focus on the materials potential for future logic using III-Vs and germanium, from the aspects of: technologies for hetero-integration; high-k/III-Vs and high-k/germanium interface passivation; device reliability; and future outlook.
3D NAND scaling: an opportunity for alternative channel materials
Arnaud Furnemont - imec
For the first time, the roadmap of a particular semiconductor device does not rely on the scaling of the device itself. 3D NAND broke the dependence on lithography by stacking more and more layers. Since the device remains more or less unchanged from generation to generation, most of the challenges are integration related, such as patterning issues and stress management. However, since the vertical pitch cannot scale enough to compensate for the number of layers, the effective channel length of the memory string gets longer with each generation. In order to keep high read performance, channel mobility will become a bottleneck. Alternative materials such as III-V components are considered to replace conventional polysilicon channels.
Silicon carbide heteroepitaxy for mass production of semiconductor devices
Gerard Colston - Advanced Epi Materials & Devices
For years now, the growth of cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) on silicon has required very high temperatures, making the process expensive and resulting in distorted epi wafers. Advanced Epi has developed a low temperature growth process of 3C-SiC on Si which uses standard silicon based, cold-wall, reduced pressure chemical vapour deposition. The process offers high growth rates of up to 10 µm/h and the films can be doped to specification during epitaxy. The high crystalline quality 3C-SiC is suitable for a range of applications such as a low lattice mismatched virtual substrate for GaN, thermal management, power electronics, sensors, MEMS, photonics and biomedical devices.
Leveraging Computer Vision, Machine Learning, & Artificial Intelligence to Assign Causality of Defects
Julie Orlando - Nanotronics
The formidable silicon substrate processes benefit from best practices being established and recognized for more than 30 years. When applying advanced material epitaxy such as GaN, defects emerge that are often assigned to incorrect root cause. The process of using MOCVD reactors can result in issues like lattice mis-matches that create crystalline defects represented by edge cracks and micropits. Using advanced computer vision, machine learning, and AI the correct causality can be assigned to defects identified early in heterogeneously integrated processes affording process and design correction to occur faster and more effectively.
Solutions for wafer-level packaging
Reinhard Windemuth - Panasonic
Wafer Level Packaging technology is getting more and more important for today’s / future packaging solutions. This presentation gives an overview of WLCSP(Wafer Level Chip Size Packaging) and FOWLP(Fan Out Wafer Level Packaging) technologies along with manufacturing solutions provided by industry.
Several major mainstream process scenarios of WLCSP and FOWLP processes are described including severe requirements. Then, four of the key technologies such as plasma dicing, plasma cleaning, die bonding / flip-chip bonding, and SMT which are already used / going to be used are explained and discussed.